This is called a credit rating ; although covered by privacy lawsthe information is readily available to people with a need to know in some countries, loan applications specifically allow the lender to access such records. Subprime borrowers have credit ratings that might include:
Household debt relative to disposable income and GDP. Existing homes sales, inventory, and months supply, by quarter.
Vicious cycles in the housing and financial markets. According to Robert J. Shiller and other economists, housing price increases beyond the general inflation rate are not sustainable in the long term.
From the end of World War II to the beginning of the housing bubble inhousing prices in the US remained relatively stable. It was fueled by low interest rates and large inflows of foreign funds that created easy credit conditions.
In it rose to 4. Bythis figure had increased to These mortgages enticed borrowers with a below market interest rate for some predetermined period, followed by market interest rates for the remainder of the mortgage's term.
Borrowers who would not be able to make the higher payments once the initial grace period ended, were planning to refinance their mortgages after a year or two of appreciation.
As a result of the depreciating housing prices, borrowers ability to refinance became more difficult. Borrowers who found themselves unable to escape higher monthly payments by refinancing began to default. As more borrowers stopped making their mortgage payments, foreclosures and the supply of homes for sale increased.
This placed downward pressure on housing prices, which further lowered homeowners' equity. The decline in mortgage payments also reduced the value of mortgage-backed securitieswhich eroded the net worth and financial health of banks.
This vicious cycle was at the heart of the crisis. As of Marchan estimated 8. He concluded that the extent of equity in the home was the key factor in foreclosure, rather than the type of loan, credit worthiness of the borrower, or ability to pay.
The number of new homes sold in was By Januarythe inventory of unsold new homes was 9. As prices declined, more homeowners were at risk of default or foreclosure.
House prices are expected to continue declining until this inventory of unsold homes an instance of excess supply declines to normal levels. As of Septemberapproximately 1. During September57, homes completed foreclosure; this is down from 83, the prior September but well above the — average of 21, completed foreclosures per month.
Speculation Speculative borrowing in residential real estate has been cited as a contributing factor to the subprime mortgage crisis.
David Lereah, National Association of Realtors 's chief economist at the time, stated that the decline in investment buying was expected: While homes had not traditionally been treated as investments subject to speculation, this behavior changed during the housing boom.
Media widely reported condominiums being purchased while under construction, then being "flipped" sold for a profit without the seller ever having lived in them.
In part by apparently misreporting their intentions to occupy the property, investors took on more leverage, contributing to higher rates of default. Bubbles are primarily social phenomena; until we understand and address the psychology that fuels them, they're going to keep forming. The entire American public eventually was caught up in a belief that housing prices could not fall dramatically.
In the years before the crisis, the behavior of lenders changed dramatically. Lenders offered more and more loans to higher-risk borrowers,   including undocumented immigrants. Financial Crisis Inquiry Reportp.Seigniorage as Fiscal Revenue in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis This study investigates the evolution of central bank profits as fiscal revenue (or: seigniorage) before and in the aftermath of the global financial crisis of –9, focusing on a select group of central banks—namely the Bank of England, the United States Federal Reserve System, the Bank of Japan, the Swiss.
This article provides background information regarding the subprime mortgage kaja-net.com discusses subprime lending, foreclosures, risk types, and mechanisms through which various entities involved were affected by the crisis.
An originate-to-distribute (OTD) model of lending, where the originator of a loan sells it to various third parties, was a popular method of mortgage lending before the onset of the subprime mortgage crisis. Start studying econ ch 9. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
The originate-to-distribute business model has a serious _____ problem since the mortgage broker has little incentive to make sure that the mortgagee is a good credit risk. Agency problems in the subprime mortgage market included.
7 Amiyatosh Purnanandam, “Originate-to-Distribute Model and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis,” Journal of Economic Literature code gG13, September 14, , pp.
The European Union’s Response to the Financial Crisis. So the problem with the originate-to-distribute model for subprime loans seems not to be centered in the former part of the phrase (i.e. "originate") but very much in the latter.